BUTTER 1 cup equals 7/8 oil or 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons solid
shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt. Also, 1 cup equals 1 cup margarine.
BUTTERMILK 1 cup equals 1 cup
CREAM (half and half) 1 cup
equals 1 1/2 tablespoons melted butter plus about 7/8 cup milk, or use
1/2 cup light cream and 1/2 cup milk.
CREAM (light) 1 cup light
cream equals 7/8 cup milk plus 3 tablespoons melted butter.
CREAM (heavy) 1 cup heavy
cream equals 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup melted butter. (But do not try to
whip this. Wont work.)
CREAM (whipping) 1 cup
whipping cream equals 2/3 cup well chilled evaporated milk, whipped, or
1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water.
CREAM (sour, cultured) 1 cup
cultured sour cream equals 1/3 cup melted butter plus 3/4 cup buttermilk
or plain yogurt. For dips, 1 cup equals 1 cup cottage cheese pureed with
1/4 cup yogurt or buttermilk, or 6 ounces cream cheese plus enough milk
to make 1 cup.
MILK (skim) 1 cup skim equals
1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus about 3/4 cup water.
MILK (to sour) Put 1
tablespoon lemon juice or distilled white vinegar in the bottom of a
measuring cup. Add enough milk to make 1 cup. Stir and let stand 5
minutes before using.
MILK (whole) 1 cup equals 1
cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter;
1 cup equals 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;
1 cup equals 1/4 cup dry whole milk plus 7/8 cup water;
1 cup equals 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 1/2 teaspoons
melted butter or margarine;
1 cup equals 1 cup soy milk: in baking you may substitute 1 cup fruit
juice for 1 cup milk.
YOGURT 1 cup equals 1 cup
buttermilk. (Some may be repeats!!)
For 1 cup sour cream, use 1 cup plain
yogurt or 1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 to 1 1/2 tablespoons vinegar. Or
1 cup cottage cheese mixed in the blender with 2 tablespoons milk plus 1
teaspoon lemon juice. Or 6 ounces cream cheese plus enough milk to make
For 1 cup butter milk or sour milk,
use 1 cup yogurt. Or 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk
to make 1 cup; let stand minutes.
Instead of sour cream, use 1
tablespoon lime or lemon juice plus 1/3 cup buttermilk plus 1 cup smooth
cottage cheese, blend until smooth in blender.
For 1 pound butter, beat 2 cups
evaporated milk SLOWLY until butter forms; pour into pan and chill. Or,
beat 1 cup buttermilk, 1/2 cup salad oil and 1 teaspoon salt into 1
pound of margarine.
For whipped cream, beat egg whites
until stiff, then add 1 sliced banana per egg white; beat again until
bananas are dissolved. Or add melted marshmallows to the white of an egg
and beat until stiff. Or 1 can of chilled evaporated milk plus 1
teaspoon lemon juice, whip until stiff.
For thickening In sauces and custards, 2 egg yolks equals 1 egg.
For baking 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon cold water equals 1 egg.
For measuring 1 1/2 tablespoons stirred egg yolks equals 1 egg yolk;
2 tablespoons stirred egg whites equals 1 egg white;
3 tablespoons mixed broken yolks and whites equals 1 medium size egg;
6 medium eggs equal about 1 cup;
5 large eggs equal about 1 cup;
4 extra large eggs equal about 1 cup;
10 to 11 medium egg whites equal about 1 cup;
8 large whites equal about 1 cup;
13 to 14 egg yolks equal about 1 cup;
12 large yolks equal about 1 cup;
10 to 11 extra large egg yolks equal about 1 cup.
ALLSPICE 1 teaspoon equals
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 18 teaspoon ground
BAY LEAF 1/4 teaspoon crushed
equals about 1 whole bay leaf.
CAROB POWDER 3 tablespoons
plus 2 tablespoons water equals 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate.
CHOCOLATE For 1 square
semi-sweetened chocolate, use 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon
butter or margarine plus 3 tablespoons sugar.
CHOCOLATE 1 ounce unsweetened
equals 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water; 1 ounce
unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or other
kind of fat; 1 ounce unsweetened plus 4 teaspoons sugar equals 1 2/3
ounces semi-sweet chocolate.
COFFEE 1/2 cup strong brewed
coffee equals 1 teaspoon instant coffee in 1/2 cup water.
GARLIC 1 clove equals 1/8
teaspoon garlic powder or instant minced garlic.
GINGER 1 tablespoon grated
fresh equals 1 teaspoon powdered or 1 tablespoon
candied with sugar washed off.
HERBS In general, 1
tablespoon fresh equals about 1/2 teaspoon dried.
MUSTARD 1 tablespoon prepared
equals 1 teaspoon dried. For 1 tablespoon mustard, use 1 teaspoon dry
mustard plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or white wine.
ONION 1 small fresh chopped
onion equals 1 tablespoon instant minced onion or 1/4 cup frozen chopped
onion; 1 tablespoon onion powder equals 1 medium-sized fresh onion
SOY SAUCE 1/4 cup equals 3
tablespoon Worcestershire sauce plus 1 tablespoon water.
WINE for marinades, 1/2 cup
equals 1/4 cup vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar plus 1/4 cup water.
WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE 1
teaspoon equals 1 tablespoon soy sauce plus dash of
hot pepper sauce.
For thickening 1 tablespoon all-purpose equals 2 teaspoons
quick-cooking tapioca (use only for soups); 1 tablespoon equals 1 1/2
teaspoons cornstarch or potato starch.
CAKE FLOUR 1 cup equals 1 cup
minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour.
ALL-PURPOSE 1 cup equals 1
1/4 cups cake flour;
1 cup equals 5/8 cup potato flour;
1 cup equals 1 1/4 cup rye or coarsely ground whole-grain flour;
1 cup equals 1 cup cornmeal.
SELF RISING FLOUR 1 cup
all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder plus 1/2 teaspoon
FOR 1 CUP ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR 1
cup minus 2 tablespoons whole wheat flour.
BAKING POWDER There are three
ways you can substitute for baking powder, depending on the recipe:
1 teaspoon baking powder equals 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2
teaspoon cream of tartar; or, 1 teaspoon baking powder equals 1/2
teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt: and 1
teaspoon baking powder also equals 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/3 cup
molasses. When using the substitutions that include liquid, reduce other
liquid in recipe accordingly.
BROWN SUGAR 1 cup firmly
packed equals 1 cup granulated sugar. For 1 cup brown sugar 2
tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup white sugar. Best used in cookies and
other cooked products.
CONFECTIONERS SUGAR 1 3/4
cups equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but do not substitute in baking.
CORN SYRUP 2 cups corn syrup
equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but be careful when substituting. Never
use corn syrup to replace more than half the amount of sugar called for
in a recipe. In baking, try not to substitute at all but if you must,
for each 2 cups sugar, reduce the liquid called for (other than syrup)
by 1/4 cup.
HONEY 1 cup equals 1 1/4 cup
sugar. For baking, decrease liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup. If there is no
liquid in the recipe, add 1/4 cup flour. Unless sour cream or sour milk
is used in recipe, add a pinch of baking soda.
GRANULATED SUGAR 1 cup equals
1 3/4 cup confectioners sugar but do not substitute in baking;
1 cup equals 1 cup packed brown sugar;
1 cup equals 1 cup super-fine sugar;
1 cup plus 1/4 cup whatever liquid is used in recipe equals 1 cup corn
1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid equals 1 cup honey;
3/4 cup sugar equals 1 cup unsulphured molasses (in baking, decrease
liquid for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add 1/2
teaspoon baking soda.)
MAPLE SYRUP 1 cup equals 1/2
cup maple sugar. To substitute for sugar in cooking, generally use only
3/4 cup maple syrup for sugar. To substitute maple syrup for sugar in
baking, use the same proportions, but reduce the other liquid called for
in the recipe by about 3 tablespoons for every cup of syrup substituted.
MOLASSES 1 cup unsulphured
molasses equals 3/4 cup sugar. In baking, decrease the liquid by 1/4 cup
for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add 1/2 teaspoon
TOMATOES AND TOMATO PRODUCTS
KETCHUP 1/2 cup equals 1/2
cup tomato sauce plus 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 tablespoon vinegar and 1/8
teaspoons ground cloves; 1 tablespoon equals 1 tablespoon tomato paste.
TOMATOES 1 cup canned
tomatoes equals 1 1/3 cups chopped fresh tomatoes, simmered
TOMATO JUICE 1 cup tomato
juice equals 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water plus dash of salt
and sugar. Or use one part tomato paste to three parts water plus salt
TOMATO PUREE 1 cup equals 1/2
cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water.
TOMATO SAUCE 1 cup equals 1
(6 ounce) can tomato paste plus 1 1/2 cans water. Or 2 cups equals 3/4
cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.
TOMATO SOUP 1 (10 3/4 ounce)
can equals 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water.
BREAD CRUMBS 1 slice bread
equals 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs;
1 slice bread equals 1/2 cup soft bread crumbs;
1 cup dry bread crumbs equals 3/4 cup cracker crumbs.
YEAST 1 package equals 2 1/4